Recommended Readings
Civil War Memory

Little more than twenty years ago, few American historians had given any thought to memory as a field of academic research, and fewer still to the memory of the American Civil War. But the intervening years have seen the publication of dozens of works in a wide array of topics. Although the scope and depth of the literature to date is impressive, in some ways it feels like only the beginning. These historians demonstrate the rewards of exploring this nation’s collective memory of the Civil War, and their works point the way to further work of equal promise.

The list has been grouped into a broad Civil War category, followed by sub-categories on the subjects of veterans and their affiliated associations, monuments, and the Lost Cause.

As always, we would be happy to be informed of titles that we have overlooked.


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Angle, Paul M.  “The Tragic Years: The Civil War and Its Commemoration.”  South Atlantic Quarterly (Autumn 1961).

Ayers, Edward L., Gary W. Gallagher, and Andrew J. Torget. Crucible of the Civil War: Virginia from Secession to Commemoration. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

Bishir, Catherine W. “Landmarks of Power: Building a Southern Past, 1855-1915.”  Southern Cultures 1 (1993): 5-46.

Blair, William A.  Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil War in the South, 1865-1914.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Blair, William A.  “Grant’s Second Civil War: The Battle for Historical Memory.”  In The Spotsylvania Campaign: Military Campaigns of the Civil War, ed. Gary Gallagher, 223-254.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Blatt, Martin H., Thomas J. Brown, and Daniel Yacovone, eds.  Hope and Glory: Essays on the Legacy of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Regiment.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

Blight, David W.  Beyond the Battlefield: Race, Memory, and the American Civil War.  Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.

Blight, David W.  “The Meaning or the Fight: Frederick Douglass and the Memory of the Fifty Fourth Massachusetts.”  Massachusetts Review 36 (Spring 1995): 141-153.

Blight, David. W.  Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory.  Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

Blight, David W.  “‘What Will Peace among the Whites Bring’: Reunion and Race in the Struggle over the Memory of the Civil War in American Culture.”  Massachusetts Review 34 (Autumn 1993): 303-410.

Brown, Dee Alexander.  “The Great Centennial.”  American History Illustrated 6: v, 5-9, 44-49.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh.  “Race, Memory, and Masculinity: Black Veterans Recall the Civil War.” In The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War, ed. Joan E. Cashin, 136-156.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh.  The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory.  Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh, ed.  Where These Memories Grow: History, Memory, and Southern Identity.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Buechler, John.  “Give ‘Em the Bayonet: A Note on Civil War Mythology.”  Civil War History 7:2 (June 1961): 128-132.

Campbell, Edward D. C., Jr., and Kym S. Rice, eds.  A Woman’s War: Southern Women, Civil War, and the Confederate Legacy.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Carmichael, Peter S.  “‘Oh, For the Presence and Inspiration of Old Jack’:  A Lost Cause Plea for Stonewall Jackson at Gettysburg.”  Civil War History (June 1995): 161-167.

Cashin, Joan E.  The Civil War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Catton, Bruce.  “Lest We Forget.”  American Heritage (August 1961).

Caudill, Edward, and Paul Ashdown.  Sherman’s March in Myth and Memory.  Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Cimprich, John.  Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005.

Clark, Kathleen Ann.  Defining Moments: African American Commemoration & Political Culture in the South, 1863-1913.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Cloyd, Benjamin G. Haunted by Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 2010.

Connelly, Thomas L.  The Marble Man: Robert E. Lee and His Image in American Society. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Connelly, Thomas L., and Barbara L. Bellows.  God and General Longstreet: The Lost Cause and the Southern Mind.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Cook, Robert J.  Troubled Commemoration: The American Civil War Centennial, 1961-1965.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007.

Crow, Jeffrey J. “Thomas Settle Jr., Reconstruction, and the Memory of the Civil War.”  Journal of Southern History 62 (November 1996): 689-726.

Davis, Michael.  The Image of Lincoln in the South.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1971.

Desjardins, Thomas A.  These Honored Dead: How the Story of Gettysburg Shaped American Memory.  Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2003.

Dodwell, H.B.  “The Final Assembly of the Civil War Centennial Commission and the State Historical Society’s Spring Tour.”  Illinois State Historical Society. Journal. 58 (1965): 190-199.

Evans, C. Wyatt.  The Legend of John Wilkes Booth: Myth, Memory, and a Mummy.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Fahs, Alice and Joan Waugh, eds.  The Memory of the Civil War in American Culture.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. "'We Should Grow Too Fond of It': Why We Love the Civil War," Civil War History 50 (December 2004): 386-383.

Fellman, Michael, Lesley J. Gordon, and Daniel E. Sutherland. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008.

Ferguson, Chris. Southerners at Rest: Confederate Dead at Hollywood Cemetery. Winchester, VA: Angle Valley Press, 2008.

Foner, Eric. Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and his World. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2008.

Franklin, John Hope.  “A Century of Civil War Observances.”  Journal of Negro History 47 (April 1962): 98.

Gallagher, Gary. Causes Won, Lost, and Forgotten: How Hollywood and Popular Art Shape What We Know about the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Gallagher, Gary.  Lee and His Generals in War and Memory.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998.

Gandos, Victor, Jr.  “Karl S. Betts and the Civil War Centennial Commission.” Military Affairs 27: 51-70.

Grant, Susan-Mary and Peter J. Parish, eds.  Legacy of Disunion: The Enduring Significance of the American Civil War.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.

Grant, U.S. III.  “The Centennial of the Civil War.”  New York History (January 1961).

Griffin, Martin.  Ashes of the Mind: War and Memory in Northern Literature, 1865-1900.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009.

Harris, Emily J.  “Sons and Soldiers: Deerfield, Massachusetts and the Civil War.” Civil War History 30 (June 1984): 157-171.

Hettle, Wallace. Inventing Stonewall Jackson: A Civil War Hero in History and Memory. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

Hobart, Taylor Jr.  “Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation.”  Negro History Bulletin 26 (1963): 183-185.

Holzer, Harold, Craig L. Symonds, and Frank J. Williams. The Lincoln Assassination: Crime and Punishment, Myth and Memory. New York: Fordham University Press, 2010.

Horwitz, Tony.  Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War.  New York: Pantheon, 1998.

Jones, Jacqueline. Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008.

Kachun, Mitch.  Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808–1915. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Kaufman, Will.  The Civil War in American Culture.  Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Keller, Christian B.  Chancellorsville and the Germans: Nativism, Ethnicity, and Civil War Memory.  New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.

Kelly, Patrick J.  “The Election of 1896 and the Restructuring of Civil War Memory.”  Civil War Memory 49 (September 2003): 254-280.

Kinney, Martha E.  “‘If Vanquished I Am Still Victorious’: Religious and Cultural Symbolism in Virginia’s Confederate Memorial Day Celebrations, 1866-1930.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 106 (summer 1998): 237-266.

Klement, Frank L.  “Ward H. Lamon and the Dedication of the Soldiers Cemetery at Gettysburg,”  Civil War History 31 (December 1985): 293-308.

Klement, Frank L.  The Gettysburg Soldiers’ Cemetery and Lincoln’s Address.  Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane Publishing Co., 1993.

Larson, Norman C.  “The Confederate Centennial: A Report.”  North Carolina Historical Review 42 (1965): 216-223.

Lee, Wayne E.  “Mind and Matter – Cultural Analysis in American Military History: A Look at the State of the Field.” Journal of American History 93:4 (March 2007): 1116-1142

MacDonnell, Francis.  “Reconstruction in the Wake of Vietnam: The Pardoning of Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis.”  Civil War History (June 1994): 119-133.

Miller, Brian Craig. John Bell Hood and the Fight for Civil War Memory. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2010.

Mitchell, Mary H.  Hollywood Cemetery: The History of a Southern Shrine.  Richmond, Va.: Virginia State Library, 1985.

Morrison, Michael A.  “American Reaction to European Revolutions, 1848-1852: Sectionalism, Memory, and the Revolutionary Heritage.”  Civil War History 49 (June 2003): 111-132.

Neff, John R.  Honoring the Civil War Dead: Commemoration and the Problem of Reconciliation.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

Newman, Ralph Goeffrey.  Preserving Lincoln for the Ages: Collectors, Collections, and Our Sixteenth President.  Fort Wayne: Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum, 1989.

Nolan, Alan T.  Lee Considered: General Robert E. Lee and Civil War History.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Peterson, Merrill D.  Lincoln in American Memory.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Pettegrew, John.  “‘The Soldier’s Faith’: Turn-of-the-Century Memory of the Civil War and the Emergence of Modern American Nationalism.”  Journal of Contemporary History 31 (1996): 49-73.

Piston, William Garret.  Lee’s Tarnished Lieutenant: James Longstreet and His Place in Southern History. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987.

Poole, W. Scott.  Never Surrender: Confederate Memory and Conservatism in the South Carolina Upcountry. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004.

Poole, W. Scott.  “Memory and the Abolitionist Heritage: Thomas Wentworth Higginson and the Uncertain Meaning of the Civil War.”  Civil War History 51 (June 2005): 202-217.

Pressley, Thomas J.  Americans Interpret Their Civil War.  New York: Free Press, 1962.

Prince, K. Michael.  “Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys”: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Rasmussen, William M. and Robert S. Tilton. The Portent: John Brown's Raid in American Memory. Richmond, VA: Virginia Historical Society, 2009.

Reardon, Carol.  Pickett’s Charge in History and Memory.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Reid, Brian Holden.  Robert E. Lee: Icon for a Nation.  Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2007.

Rezneck, Samuel.  “The Second Inaugural On Its One-Hundredth Birthday, March 4, 1865-March 4, 1965.” Month at Goodspeeds 36 (1965): 162-166.

Richardson, Edgar P.  “Centennial City.” American Heritage 23:1: 17-32.

Rilley, Kathleen. “The Long Shadow of the Confederacy in America’s Schools: State-Sponsored Use of Confederate Symbols in the Wake of Brown v. Board.” William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 10 (February 2002): 533-534.

Robertson, James I., Jr.  “The Civil War Centennial – Archival Aspects.”  American Archivist 26 (1963): 11-18.

Rosenberg, R. B.  Living Monuments: Confederate Soldiers’ Homes in the New South.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Ross, Michael A.  “The Commemoration of Robert E. Lee’s Death and the Obstruction of  Reconstruction in New Orleans.”  Civil War History 51 (June 2005): 135-150.

Rowland, Thomas J. George B. McClellan and Civil War History: In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2008.

Rozanski, Edward C.  “The Civil War Centennial and Polish Americans.”  Polish American Studies 20 (1963): 40-44.

Sachsman, David B. and S. Kittrell Rushing.  Memory and Myth: The Civil War in Fiction and Film from Uncle Tom’s Cabin to Cold Mountain.  West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2007.

Sarris, Jonathan Dean.  A Separate Civil War: Communities in Conflict in the Mountain South.  Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Schwartz, Barry.  Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era: History and Memory in Late Twenteith-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Schwartz, Barry. “History and Collective Memory: How Abraham Lincoln Became a Symbol of Racial Equality.”  Sociological Quarterly 38 (1997): 469-496.

Schwartz, Barry.  “Iconography and Collective Memory: Lincoln’s Image in the American Mind.”  Sociological Quarterly 32 (1991): 301-319.

Schwartz, Barry.  “Memory as a Cultural System: Abraham Lincoln in World War II.”  American Sociological Review 61 (1996): 908-927.

Shackel, Paul A.  Memory in Black and White: Race, Commemoration and the Post-Bellum Landscape.  Walnut Creek, Ca.: Altamira Press, 2003.

Shaffer, Donald R.  After the Glory: The Struggle of Black Civil War Veterans.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Silber, Nina.  The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, 1865—1900.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Simon, John Y., Frank E. Vandiver, and G.B. Long.  “Three Centennial Projects.”  Civil War History 9:3 (1963): 277-283.

Smith, Timothy B. The Golden Age of Battlefield Preservation: The Decade of the 1890s and the Establishment of America's First Five Military Parks. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008.

Smith, Timothy B.  This Great Battlefield of Shiloh: History, Memory, and the Establishment of a  Civil War National Military Park.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2004.

Starnes, Richard D.  “Forever Faithful: The Southern Historical Society and Confederate Historical Memory.”  Southern Cultures. 2 (Winter 1996): 177-194.

Temple, Wayne C.  “Last Assembly of the Civil War Centennial Commission.”  Lincoln Herald 67 (1965): 83-90.

Thomas, Teresa A.  “For Union, Not For Glory: Memory and the Civil War Volunteers of Lancaster, Massachusetts.”  Civil War History (March 1994): 25-47.

Tsesis, Alexander. “The Problem of Confederate Symbols: A Thirteenth Amendment Approach.” Temple Law Review 75 (Fall 2002): 539-612.

Wakefield, Dan.  “Civil War Centennial: Bull Run With Popcorn.”  The Nation (January 1960).

Warren, Craig.  “‘Oh God What a Pity!’: The Irish Brigade at Fredericksburg.”  Civil War History 47 (September 2001): 193-221.

Waugh, Joan.  “‘Pageantry of Woe’: The Funeral of Ulysses S. Grant.” Civil War History 51 (June 2005): 151-174.

Waugh, Joan.  U. S. Grant: American Hero, American Myth.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Waugh, Joan, and Gary Gallagher.  Wars within a War: Controversy and Conflict over the American Civil War.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Weeks, James P.  “A Different View of Gettysburg: Play, Memory, and Race at the Civil War’s Greatest Shrine.” Civil War History 50 (June 2004): 175-191.

Weeks, James P.  Gettysburg: Memory, Market, and an American Shrine.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Wiggins, William H., Jr.  O Freedom!: Afro-American Emancipation Celebrations.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Wiggins, William H., Jr., and Douglas DeNatale.  Jubilation! African American Celebration in the Southeast.  Columbia, S.C.: McKissick Museum, 1993.

Wiley, Bell Irvin.  “The Memorable War.”  Missouri Historical Review (January 1959).

Wiley, Bell Irvin.  “The Role of the Archivist in the Civil War Centennial.”  American Archivist (April 1960).

Winsboro, Irvin D. S.  Florida’s Civil War: Exploration into Conflict, Interpretation and Memory.  Cocoa, Fla.: Florida Historical Society Press, 2007.

Woodman, Harold D, ed.  The Legacy of the American Civil War.  New York: Wiley, 1973.

Woodward, C. Vann.  “Reflections on a Centennial: The American Civil War.”  Yale Review (June 1961).

Veterans and Commemorative Societies

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Beath, Robert B.  History of the Grand Army of the Republic.  New York: Bryan, Taylor & Co., 1889.

Blatt, Martin Henry, Thomas J. Brown, Donald Yacovone, and Colin L. Powell. Hope and Glory: Essays on the Legacy of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Regiment. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009.

Blanck, Peter and Larry M. Logue. Race, Ethnicity, and Disability: Veterans and Benefits in Post-Civil War America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Bishir, Catherine W. “‘A Strong Force of Ladies’: Women, Politics, and Confederate Memorial Associations in Nineteenth-Century Raleigh,” in Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory, ed. Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson, 3-26.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.

Cashdollar, Charles D.  “The Pittsburgh Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Convention, September 25-26, 1866.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 48: 331-343.

Confederate Southern Memorial Association.  History of the Confederated Memorial Associations of the South.  New Orleans: Graham Press, 1904.

Cox, Karen L.  Dixie’s Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Davies, Wallace E.  Patriotism on Parade: The Story of Veterans and Hereditary Organizations in  American,1783-1900.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955.

Dearing, Mary R.  Veterans in Politics: The Story of the G. A. R.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1952.

Dorgan, Howard.  “Ringing Changes on the Southern Belles: The Cult of Southern Womanhood in the Ceremonial Oratory of Confederate Veterans.”  North Carolina Journal of Speech and Drama 5: 10-18.

Gannon, Barbara A. The Won Cause: Black and White Comradeship in the Grand Army of the Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Harrison, Lowell H.  “Union Veterans in the Texas Panhandle, 1890.” Panhandle Plains Historical Review 37 (1964): 37-62.

Hattaway, Herman.  “Clio’s Southern Soldiers: The United Confederate Veterans and History.”  Louisiana History 12: 213-242.

Heck, Frank Hopkins.  The Civil War Veteran in Minnesota Life and Politics.  Oxford, Ohio: Mississippi Valley Press, 1941.

Hunt, Robert Eno. The Good Men who Won the War: Army of the Cumberland Veterans and Emancipation Memory. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2010.

Janney, Caroline E.  Burying the Dead But Not the Past: Ladies’ Memorial Association & the Lost Cause.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Marten, James. Sing Not War: The Lives of Union and Confederate Veterans in Gilded Age America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

McConnell, Stuart.  Glorious Contentment: The Grand Army of the Republic, 1865-1900.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Miller, Thomas L.  “Texas Land Grants to Confederate Veterans and Widows.”  Southwestern Historical Quarterly 69: 59-65.

Parrott, Angie.  “‘Love Makes Memory Eternal’: The United Daughters of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia, 1897-1920,” in The Edge of the South: Life in Nineteenth-Century Virginia, ed. Edward Ayers and John C. Willis, 219-38.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991.

Poppenheim, Mary B., et alia.  The History of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.  Richmond: Garrett and Massie, Inc., 1938.

Seidman, Rachel Filene.  “‘We Were Enlisted for the War’: Ladies’ Aid Societies and the Politics of Women’s Work during the Civil War,” in Making and Remaking Pennsylvania’s Civil War, ed. William A. Blair and William Pencak, 59-80.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.

Shaffer, Donald R. After the Glory: The Struggles of Black Civil War Veterans.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Wagstaff, Thomas.  “The Arm in Arm Convention.”  Civil War History 14: 101-119.

Whites, LeeAnn.  “‘Stand by Your Man’: The Ladies Memorial Association and the Reconstruction of Southern White Manhood,” in Women of the American South: A Multicultural Reader, ed. Christine Anne Farnham, 133-149.  New York: New York University Press, 1997.


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Brown, Thomas J.  The Public Art of Civil War Commemoration: A Brief History with Documents.  New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004.

Choay, Françoise.  The Invention of the Historic Monument.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Cumbee, David E.  “Confederate Memorial and Memorial Chapel: Riverside Cemetery, Hopkinsville, Kentucky.”  Filson Club History Quarterly 43: 353-354.

Davis, Stephen.  “Empty Eyes, Marble Hand: The Confederate Monument and the South.” Journal of Popular Culture 16 (Winter 1982): 2-21.

Driggs, Sarah S., Richard G. Wilson, Robert P. Winthrop, and John O. Peters.  Richmond’s Monument Avenue.  Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Dupre, Judith.  Monuments: America’s History in Art and Memory.  New York: Random House, 2007.

Harris, Emily J.  “Sons and Soldiers: Deerfield, Massachusetts and the Civil War.”  Civil War History 30:2 (June 1984): 157-171.

Janney, Caroline E.  “Written in Stone: Gender, Race, and the Heywood Shepherd Memorial.” Civil War History 52 (June 2006): 117-141.

Jacob, Kathryn A., and Edwin H. Remsberg.  Testament to Union: Civil War Monuments in Washington, D.C.  Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Jacobus, Melancthon W.  “The Soldiers and Sailors Memorial in Hartford.”  Connecticut Historical Society. Bulletin. 34: 33-42.

Johnson, Kristina Dunn.  No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments and Cemeteries of South Carolina.  The History Press, 2009.

Lilnenthal, Edward Tabor.  Sacred Ground: Americans and Their Battlefields.  Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Marcus, Lois Goldreich. “The Shaw Memorial by Augustus Saint-Gaudens: A History Painting in Bronze.” Winterthur Portfolio: A Journal of American Material Culture 14 (Spring 1979): 1-23.

McMichael, Kelly.  Sacred Memories: The Civil War Monument Movement in Texas.  Texas State Historical Association, 2009.

Mills, Cynthia, and Pamela H. Simpson, eds.  Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and Landscapes of Southern Memory.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.

Moore, John H.  “The Jefferson Davis Monument.”  Virginia Cavalcade (Spring 1961).

Murray, Freeman H.  Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture: A Study in Interpretation.  Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.

Rule, David G. Confederate Monuments at Gettysburg. Gettysburg Battle Monuments, vol. 1. Hightstown, New Jersey: Longstreet, 1986.

Sandage, Scott A. “A Marble House Divided: The Lincoln Memorial, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Politics of Memory, 1939—1963.” Journal of American History 80 (June 1993): 135—167.

Savage, Kirk.  Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape.  Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2009.

Savage, Kirk.  Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth Century America.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Soderberg, Susan Cooke.  Lest We Forget: A Guide to Civil War Monuments in Maryland.  Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane Publishing, 1995.

Thomas, Christopher A.  The Lincoln Memorial and American Life.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Whitfield, Stephen J. “‘Sacred in History and in Art’: The Shaw Memorial.” New England Quarterly 60 (March 1987): 3-27.

Wiggins, David N.  Georgia’s Confederate Monuments and Cemeteries.  Arcadia Publishing, 2006.

Winberry, Joel J. “‘Lest We Forget’: The Confederate Monument and the Southern Townscape.” Southeastern Geographer 23 (November 1983): 107-121.

Lost Cause

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Bailey, Fred Arthur.  “The Textbooks of the ‘Lost Cause’: Censorship and the Creation of Southern State Histories.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 75 (Fall 1991): 507-533.

Bynum, Victoria E. The Long Shadow of the Civil War: Southern Dissent and its Legacies. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Davis, William C.  The Cause Lost: Myths and Realities of the Confederacy.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Dorgan, Howard.  “The Doctrine of Victorious Defeat in the Rhetoric of Confederate Veterans.” Southern Speech Communication Journal 38: 119-130.

Foster, Gaines M.  Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Gallagher, Gary W. and Alan T. Nolan, eds.  The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Gulley, H. E.  “Women and the Lost Cause: Preserving a Confederate Identity in the American Deep South.”  Journal of Historical Geography 19 (1993): 125-141.

Logue, Larry M.  To Appomattox and Beyond: The Civil War Soldier in War and Peace. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.

Maddox, Jack P. Jr.  “Pollard’s The Lost Cause Regained: A Mask for Southern Accommodation.” Journal of Southern History 40: 595-612.

Marshall, Anne E. Creating a Confederate Kentucky: The Lost Cause and Civil War Memory in a Border State. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

McPherson, James. “Long-Legged Yankee Lies: The Lost Cause Textbook Crusade,” in This Mighty Scourge: Perspectives on the Civil War, 93-106.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Mills, Cynthia and Pamela H. Simpson.  Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.

Montgomery, Rebecca. “Lost Cause Mythology in New South Reform: Gender, Class, and Race and the Politics of Patriotic Citizenship in Georgia, 1890-1925.”  In Negotiating Boundaries of Southern Womanhood: Dealing with the Powers That Be, eds. Janet L. Coryell, Thomas H. Appleton, Anastatia Sims, and Sandra G. Treadway.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000.

Osterweis, Rollin G.  The Myth of the Lost Cause, 1865-1900.  Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1973.

Simms, L. Moody, Jr.  “Father Abram Joseph Ryan: Poet of the Lost Cause.”  Lincoln Herald 72: 3-7.

Simpon, John A.  “The Cult of the Lost Cause.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 34: 350-361.

Wilson, Charles Reagan.  Baptized in Blood: The Religion of the Lost Cause, 1865-1920. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1980.



Recommended Readings

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Lost Cause

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